Jean-Marie Le Pen, former leader of the far-right National Front party and a lieutenant during the war, attacked Le Monde and former Prime minister Michel Rocard on charges of defamation after the newspaper accused him of having engaged in torture. The suspects were arrested during raids, after having been denounced. She named General Massu as the responsible of the French military at the time. More than a million Muslim Algerians died in the conflict and … Regarding the French pathway, journalist Marie-Monique Robin argued in her 2004 book on death squads how French intelligence agents had taught their Chilean and Argentine counterparts the use of torture and "disappearances" as a counter-insurgency tactic. [citation needed] In testimony in January 2007 before Argentine judges, Luis María Mendía, Argentine Admiral and originator of the "death flights" during the "Dirty War", referred to Marie Monique Robin's film documentary titled The Death Squads – the French School (Les escadrons de la mort – l'école française), which argued that the French intelligence services had trained Argentine counterparts in counter-insurgency techniques. This way of waging war seems to me as stupid as it is cruel. Prior to World War II the Party of the Algerian People (Parti du Peuple Algérien) had been founded by Messali Hadj. For justifying the use of torture, he was condemned in court, and stripped of his army rank and his Legion of honor.[3][40][43][44]. Jean-Luc Einaudi: "La bataille de Paris: 17 October 1961", 1991, French Section of the Workers' International, Church of the Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, "La torture et l'armée pendant la guerre d'Algérie". Pierre Vidal-Naquet, one of the many signatories to the Manifeste des 121 against torture,[30] wrote a book, L'Affaire Audin (1957), and, as a historian, would continue to work on the Algerian War all his life. [3] Henri Alleg's 1958 book, La Question, Boris Vian's The Deserter, and Jean-Luc Godard's 1960 film Le Petit Soldat (released in 1963) are famous examples of such censorship. ", Branche, Raphaëlle. Meynier further argues that the best number to capture the harkis deaths is 30,000. [67] The training of Latin American officers, including a number of future tortionists and leaders who ordered torture, was conducted on a large scale via the formal education programs of the School of the Americas. The scale of French retaliations instilled fear and anger among the Algerian population and vengeance among the pied noirs. Faber and Faber. This greatly influences the judge and courts.[39]. This trajectory silenced the voices on both sides that called for moderation, and the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962) was thus characterized by FLN terrorism and French brutality. Writer Albert Camus, a Pied-noir and famous existentialist, tried unsuccessfully to persuade both sides to at least leave civilians alone, writing editorials against the use of torture in Combat newspaper. French Gen. Paul Aussaresses, whose remorseless admission of executions and torture during the Algerian independence war five decades ago forced France … [iii] Algerians who joined the FLN late once the tide had turned, used violence as a way to prove themselves and to claim materials rewards (through looting, for instance). Pierre Vidal-Naquet, a French historian, confessed that there were "hundreds of thousands of instances of torture" by the French military in Algeria. [7], The 2004 Court of Cassation judgment condemning Aussaresses stated that "freedom to inform, which is the basis of freedom of expression" does not lead to "accompany the exposure of facts ... with commentaries justifying acts contrary to human dignity and universally reproved nor to glorify its author."[8]. I think that all the means available to wreck tribes must be used, barring those that the human kind and the right of nations condemn. ... Atrocities included civilian massacres and torture. [citation needed] On the other hand, General Bigeard violently denied its use. "Besides all above, France killed 45,000 Algerians," he added. On the contrary, they were considered as "terrorists" and deprived of the rights to which belligerents are legally entitled during a war, including cases of civil wars under Geneva Convention Protocol II. This—in combination with the engrained perception that Algeria belonged to the Metropole—made the French government unwilling to address even the moderate demands of nationalist Algerian groups. Beating was combined with many different techniques, among them hanging by the feet or hands, water torture, torture by electric shock, and rape. This book does not whitewash the atrocities committed by both sides; rather it focuses on the conflict itself, a perspective assisted by the French republic's official admission in 1999 that what happened in Algeria was indeed a war. 2014. [68], The French and U.S. pathways have a common root, as the use of electrical generators for torture was invented in America in 1908, spread in Asia during World War II, and passed to both French and U.S. forces during their respective involvement in the First Indochina War and the Vietnam War (or Second Indochina War).[67]. Masses of disaffected Algerians had been imported to rebuild post-second-world-war France on low wages, and the influx continued after the Algerian war. Emanuel Macron, the first French president born after the Algerian War (1954-1962), caused controversy during his election campaign when he declared in February 2017 that France’s colonization of Algeria was a crime against humanity, true brutality and “part of the history that we must face by apologizing to those against whom we have committed such practices”. (Branche, 2004). The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (Arabic language: الثورة الجزائرية Ath-Thawra Al-Jazā’iriyya; French language: Guerre d'Algérie, "Algerian War") was a war between France and the Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. Torture was occasionally used alongside beatings and killings to eliminate opponents of the FLN, and the death toll of this internecine violence within France alone was approximately 4,000. [citation needed] A confidential report of the ICRC leaked to Le Monde newspaper confirmed the allegations of torture made by the opposition to the war, represented in particular by the French Communist Party (PCF) and other anti-militarist circles. : Libri in altre lingue French soldiers, committing extra-judicial murder, weren't psychopaths: they were acting ... Twenty-four years later the French fought a quasi-civil war in Algeria. France and the Algerian War, 1954-1962: Strategy, Operations and Diplomacy: Alexander, Martin S., Keiger, J.F.V. He then declared: "You are striking the heart of an 84-year-old man." He had under his charge only civil justice, and Reliquet (the public prosecutor in Algiers and who was a liberal [i.e. One of them, Louis Delarue, wrote a text distributed to all units: If, in the general interest, the law allows a murderer to be killed, why should it be seen as monstrous to submit a delinquent who has been recognized as such, and is therefore liable to be put to death, to an interrogation which might be painful but whose only object is, thanks to the revelations he may make about his accomplices and leaders, to protect the innocent? It is under Galtieri's regime that the use of torture became systematic in Argentina; other countries where SOA graduates were accused of involvement in torture or political murders include Guatemala, El Salvador, Colombia, Panama and Haiti. It's both true and false to say that Algeria is to France as Vietnam is to the United States. Context and descriptions of torture: scope and extent, The Battle of Algiers (January–October 1957), the state of emergency and the ICRC report, General Aussaresses' 2000 confession and condemnation, "The French School" and "The American School", A Savage War of Peace – Algeria 1954–62, Alistair Horne. Many massacres were committed during the Algerian Civil War that began in 1991. As combat moved to the capital, casualties peaked over the next year during the two, back-to-back battles of Algiers. One of the things that emerges from a glance at French history during the Algerian war (1954-1962) is just how turbulent and brutal a time it was. For more than a year irrefutable new evidence of war crimes committed by French forces during the Algerian war of independence has been surfacing in French newspapers and in memoirs by senior French generals. ), "La seconde commission de sauvegarde des droits et libertés individuels" in AFHJ, in. I will give you a very honest answer, just hope it can explain why Algeria won independence. Violence committed by the OAS reached its highest point just after the ceasefire period, and anti-harki massacres spiked in July 1962. "[14] From the smokings (enfumades) of the Darha caves in 1844 by Pélissier to the 1945 riots in Sétif, Guelma and Kherrata", the repression in Algeria has used the same methods. French Counterinsurgency in Algeria: Forgotten Lessons from a Misunderstood Conflict. Introduction | Atrocities | Fatalities | Ending | Coding | Works Cited | Notes. New York: Berg, 195 – 210. "La commission de sauvegarde des droits et libertés individuels pendant la guerre d'Algérie. which in 1957 controlled, arrested, and tortured. The French Intifada: The Long War Between France and Its Arabs. by Commander H. Canuel. 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