Copyright © 2020 IPL.org All rights reserved. 2007, Naeem 2006). Because of reducing soil fertility, an ever increasing area has to be planted in order to grow sufficient food. Deforestation kills the plant species that are chopped down and causes the loss of habitat for both plants and animals. The aim of this literature review was to scrutinize and summarize only the environmental impact of ASM activities on the rainforest ecosystem in the Congo Basin. According to Nsenkyire (1998), the main causes in Ghana are (i) forest clearance for cocoa and food crop farms and (ii) logging (both legal and illegal). The recent FAO 2010 report has estimated Ghana’s deforestation at 135 395 ha per year. Reforestation is to plant trees on land which carried forest within the previous 50 years or within living memory. It is cleared by chainsaws, bulldozers and unsustainable logging for its timber value as well as fires and degradation due to climate change. Tree planting could be made easier by encouraging local people to get involved through provision of incentives. The article will also briefly discuss the causes of deforestation and present some suggested solutions. 4. http://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/2000/Ghana.ht, Send your news stories to [email protected] and via WhatsApp on +1-508-812-0505. It is taking a toll on the Earth’s environment and population. In fact it … A forest stand is a close community of trees sufficient in size, composition and location to distinguish it from other nearby communities. Agricultural expansion particular by cocoa production was identified as the highest driver of deforestation in this landscape contributing about 50% to the total forest lost. Soil can be swept away because tree roots are no longer there to bind the soil together. Learn how your comment data is processed. Illegal small scale mining causes a massive amount of deforestation. maJor causes of deforesTaTIon In ghana In Ghana, deforestation is the result of a number of economic activities: legal and illicit logging, clearing trees to increase arable land, fuel wood extraction and mining. Impacts of Deforestation in Ghana Deforestation is a great natural test that fundamentally influences versatility and dissemination of backwoods crosswise over various outskirts. The report indicated that Africa has the second highest rate of deforestation worldwide (with 3.4 million hectares of forest loss annually).The situation is not any different in Ghana where forest has been under pressure from human activities over the last century. The international community, governments at national level, NGOs, and other such organizations are raising awareness about the dangerous consequences of forest loss to the environment and hence humanity. However, even these are no longer immune to the advance of deforestation, with many hit hard by a surge of forest loss that began in April. Initiatives such as ‘Tree Aid’ provide an example of how such aspirations can be realised. A SURVEY OF DWEASE AND PRAASO COMMUNITIES IN THE ASHANTI REGION Peter Dok Tindan Supervisor Kjell Havnevik . VIs, based upon digital brightness values, attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigour. This is an extremely important initiative because, in Ghana, approximately 15 per cent of deforestation is being caused by cocoa farming, as it’s our main export, while almost 800,000 farming families are involved with the cocoa trade. Illegal logging is a major cause of deforestation, depriving the Ghanaian economy of fibre, legal employment and tax revenues. Famers move to the forest in search of land for growing crops and burn trees to produce ash for fertilizer. Hence every citizen should be a guardian of the remaining trees and be inspired and encouraged to plant trees. In developed countries, the majority of people do not directly depend on the forest for energy to cook, hence it is easier to conserve forests. Low consumer confidence as a result of inflation, leads to less spending. Deforestation, the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses, is considered to be a contributing factor to global climate change. is that in both Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, deforestation linked to cocoa production, the core concern of the CFI, has increased — not decreased — since the launch of the Frameworks. An alternative definition is that it is possible to climb a tree at maturity, in comparison to shrubs which cannot be climbed. Introduct If the events of 1981-83 for instance are anything to go by, Ghana would spend its last penny to avert the threat posed by desertification. Ghana has one of the highest deforestation rates in Africa and the world, at 2% per annum. Various vegetation indices (VIs) have developed to measure vegetative vigour and biomass with most popular ones using red and near infrared wavelengths to emphasize the difference between the strong absorption of red electromagnetic radiation the scatter of near infrared radiation (Lu et al. Commercial logging. Definitions  Deforestation generally results from inefficient agricultural practices, woodfuel consumption (firewood and charcoal), indiscriminate logging, bushfires and mining activities. factors. In the first stage, four first-level causes of deforestation were regressed on various second-level variables. Numerous media reports stated that Ghana is losing its rainforest faster than any other country in the world and that the 60% increase in deforestation during 2017-2018 is mainly associated with cocoa expansion. The rate of forest loss in the country is so extensive and rapid and so, it is therefore a challenge to get the exact figures for the rate of deforestation (Benhin & Barbier 2001). FAO 2006 and 2010 reports Legal logging could also still be harmful to forest if not done in environmentally friendly ways. 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Suggested Solutions  London: Routledge I observed that most logs illegally cut in Upper West Region of Ghana were being transported across to Burkina Faso, through the borders. The Ghana forestry commission is committed to tackling deforestation. In trying to fight deforestation, we may not go very far if we are merely trying to stop illegal logging. The causes of deforestation are logging, agriculture croplands and pasture expansion, urbanization and more (Ebenezer 2015). Deforestation can occur quickly especially in the Blue Mountains, through fire or clear-felling to make way for plantations, crops or pasture. While clearing for cocoa farming is a leading cause of deforestation, mining is the biggest threat. The destruction of forests for cocoa in Ivory Coast and Ghana has been well-documented, including in Mighty Earth’s recent report, “ Chocolate’s Dark Secret .”. Agricultural changes were partly responsible over many years for the forest loss, but recent evidences show that there are other driving forces and factors, which have influenced the face of forests in Ghana. The pressures on Ghana’s forests have been recognized for many years with "alarming deforestation" noted as early as 1908. Some people argue that trees take too long to grow but I say that it is better to plant today and have it in 50 years than not to plant today and be forced to plant it in 50 years and end up using it in 100 years or more from now. Moreover, the diversity of plant species increases carbon of the soil, biomass production, nutrient mineralization and soil organic matter. Similarly, we can only stop deforestation triggered by poverty when we have been able to tackle and deal with the poverty problems. Deforestation is directly being caused by activities such as illegal logging, agricultural development, mining and infrastructure projects – but there are reasons behind these activities which are often overlooked. The World Wildlife Fund reports that much of the logging industry that contributes to deforestation is done illegally (about half of it used for firewood). Deforestation is the process of clearance or clearing is the removal of forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. This is to be applauded but should also be done with more participation from local dwellers. Trees: Over protected or rejected resources? By FAO definitions, an area is considered to be forest if it covers an area greater than 0.5 hectares, and has 10% or more tree crown cover. Local people are those who help these illegal people to locate such trees in order to make their own gains at the expense of the whole of the nation. Ghana is no exception to the continuous environmental degradation as a result of deforestation fuelled by her rapid I would like to end with an old Greek proverb which says, “a society grows great when old men plant trees whose shade they know they shall never sit in”. Between 1990 and 2000, Ghana lost an average of 135,000 hectares of forest per year; amounting to an average annual deforestation rate of -2% (FAO, 2007). One cause of deforestation is the utilization of wood people receive from cutting down forests to make several different types of appliances. In Sydney, deforestation is predominantly caused by agriculture, more intense and frequent fires and mining and infrastructure projects. Forests, which cover 30% of Earth’s surface, are critically important to just about every aspect of life, especially in the face of climate change. The indirect (underlying) causes are those factors that trigger the actual causes and these include; poverty, ignorance, corrupt practices of governments, security & forestry officials, weak institutions, inappropriate policies, lack of law enforcement, lack of concern by local communities, land tenure issues among others. What exactly is deforestation and why does the economy have a need for it, even though it has an adverse effect worldwide? Despite the government's efforts to maintain and protect Ghana's forest reserves, deforestation continues. An increasing supply-demand for products such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate. A major cause of deforestation is agriculture plantations. Causes of inflation in Ghana pdf explain that this negatively affects banks profits and can result in them closing some of their branches or going out of business completely. Deforestations impact on Earth is exceptionally greater than what people perceive it to be. Ghana’s last remaining tracts of primary forest can only be found within areas granted official protection. Examples include forest clearance for mining, industrial development, building of stadia, schools and other large infrastructure projects. Notes on deforestation for cocoa beyond West Africa: Globally: Global forest loss caused by cocoa production was roughly 2-3 million hectares from 1988 to 2008, which equaled approximately 1% of total forest loss. Commercial logging which involves cutting trees for sale as timber or pulp is also one of the main causes of deforestation in Ghana. Degradation however refers to any activity that affects the quality of the forest. Ghana is no exception to the continuous environmental degradation as a result of deforestation fuelled by her rapid In the first stage, four first-level causes of deforestation were regressed on various second-level variables. The paper also outlines the causes of continuing deforestation in the studied region from the perspective of the local residents and discusses what role they could play in addressing the problem. This is done by selfish people who try and keep all the benefits away from the nation. Protecting life on land is a much broader concept than one might think. To deal with degradation of soil health usually provides the major up heal task but for each problem, there are immediate and long-term treatments available (Dobson et al,1997) see below. It is essentially characterized as loss of woodland spread by and large because of logging of timberlands for other land employments (Gorte and Sheik, 2010). There are both direct and indirect causes. Encroachment of agriculture into forest has accelerated dramatically in recent years, but historical research has shown that much of the forest inside and outside of reserves is not primary, but regenerated secondary forest on previously cultivated and depopulated lands. Ghana's protected forest reserves have suffered average annual deforestation rates of 0.7%, 0.5%, 0.4%, and 0.6% for the periods 1990–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–2010 and 2010–2015, respectively. Student wins landmark court case against IPS. A VI is calculated as a result of the combination of many spectral values that are added (Campbell 2002).The use of VIs as an indicator of forest structure may be an important tool for landscape planning, and for decision on conservation and restoration strategies (Freitas et al. 2007). The protection of the nation’s forest is a collective responsibility of every Ghanaian. A two-stage regression analysis was conducted, where the causes of deforestation were grouped into first-level, direct causes and second-level (or indirect) causes. When land is deforested, plant and animal diversity can be lost. Ghana has one of the highest deforestation rates in Africa and the world, at 2% per annum. ‘Deforestation refers to the cutting, clearing, and removal of rainforest or related ecosystems into less bio-diverse ecosystems such as pasture, cropland, or plantations.’ These rural dwellers may not be well informed about the benefits of preserving trees and even if they know, they value the money they get from chain saw operators much more than allowing the tree to stand. For plant species that take a long time to regrow deforestation is even more devastating, since they take so much longer to regenerate. Government must step up forest protection by ensuring a multi-sectoral approach. Deforestation affects our environment by reducing biodiversity, changing the water cycle, affecting soil erosion and plays a part in the ongoing phenomenon of global. Deforestation, as part of the initial step in mining, has a negative effect on dependent species. and 2005, for example, Ghana lost about 1,931,000 hectares of forest, equivalent to 26 percent of total tree cover (Amisah et al, 2009). Although the leading threat is unclear, numerous factors contribute to environmental damage in Ghana. Deforestation is the permanent effect of the destruction of forests to make space and land for other uses. On a 100 year scale (1900 to 2000), the nation lost over 80% of the closed forest (a reduction from 8.8 million ha to 1.5 million ha). [i] Cocoa represented 8% of deforestation embodied in EU27 net imports of crop products, 1990-2008. Farmers also impact deforestation. The FAO 2010 report revealed an alarming rate of deforestation with a global loss of around 13 million hectares of forest each year in the last decade (2000 to 2010). Most causes can be linked to livelihood and development. Therefore, impacts on biodiversity can have strong effects on ecosystem services (Cardinale, 2012). In my opinion, halting forest loss should rather tackle both the direct causes and indirect causes, i.e. To date, they represent potential causes of deforestation and forest degradation. al., 1999). Air pollution is the source of acid rain, which weakens and damages trees and poisons the soil in the forests. The basic reasons for such extensive deforestation are: Related posts: Four Main Causes of deforestation in India During British Rule Here is your free essay on Deforestation 4 easy steps for Controlling Deforestation What are the major Consequences of […] Although the leading threat is unclear, numerous factors contribute to environmental damage in Ghana. The area of high forest (off reserve) has drastically reduced and the only remaining portions today are mainly in protected areas. Traditional agroforestry system, contain many trees minimizing nutrient leaching and soil erosion and restore key nutrients (Marten, 1986). Workshop for media personnel on forestry and wildlife reporting Some of the specific areas under threat are the Miombo Woodlands in Tanzania and the Sambisa Forest in Nigeria. Their efforts will not be successful until they are complemented with efforts of forest fringe communities. Ranching and large-scale agriculture leads to deforestation because raising cattle and crops has resulted in the clearing of forests to free up. They should also be trained to understand and implement forest management approaches such as reduced impact logging, sustainable forest management, multiple use forest management, participatory forest management, and community forest management among others which have been found to be useful in other countries. It is common recently to find chain saw operators even in northern Ghana selecting and cutting the few economic trees left in the area. The resistance to invasion increase with the plant biodiversity. Mining (galamsey) could also cause more damaging deforestation than bad farming practices in certain parts of the country, Ghana. Rampant deforestation has cleared seven percent of Ghana’s tree cover in just over a decade. Conversion of forest lands for industrial activities or infrastructural development is another cause of forest loss. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. Other drivers identified included illegal timber harvesting (35%) and Galamsey (5%) Records show that at the turn of the last century, Ghana had about 8.8 million ha of primary forest. Only a few studies have empirically examined the effects of land tenure on deforestation. al., 1999). The causes of deforestation in Ghana are numerous, interrelated, complex and categorised into direct and indirect causes. Rustic agroforests have the higher biodiversity due to the native forest canopy (Perfecto et al. Ghana's protected forest reserves have suffered average annual deforestation rates of 0.7%, 0.5%, 0.4%, and 0.6% for the periods 1990–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–2010 and 2010–2015, respectively. 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