Postmortem examination revealed acute gastroenteritis with numerous haemorrhages and marked degeneration of the liver [4]. Mukanganyama et al. 1919 By mistake by author; Elephantorrhiza burkei This member of the Fabaceae family was given this name by George Bentham in 1846. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a perennial suffrutex or low shrub, producing annual stems up to 90 cm tall at ground level, from the woody end of an elongate, with often thickened rhizome up to 8 m long [16]. MIC activities against the pathogens ranged between 0.08 and 0.63 mg/mL, and the highest inhibition was exhibited against Shigella flexneri with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.16 mg/mL [28], and these findings somehow confirm the species’ antibacterial potential and its usefulness in the treatment and management of gastrointestinal infections. The other English common names, “elephant’s foot” and “elephant-root,” are in reference to large and long rhizomes or roots of the species measuring up to 8 m long [2]. Aaku et al. The rhizome, roots, leaves, and stems of E. elephantina are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and are used to treat or manage various human and animal ailments and diseases throughout its distributional range in southern Africa (Table 2). Fabaceae-Mimosoidae Faurea saligna Harvey Proteaceae Ficus sur Forssk. These results support the traditional use of the species in various inflammatory ailments and diseases ranging from microbial infections to sores and wounds that result in cell injury and pain. [50] assessed antibacterial activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) root extracts of E. elephantina while Mabona et al. Common names: Elephant-root (English) Frequency: Status: Native: Description: Low growing suffrutex, arising from a massive underground tuberous root. Nciki et al. Maphosa et al. Might be: Elephantorrhiza elephantina var. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents while Senecio longiflorus contained the lowest concentration of both phytochemicals. Research by de Wet et al. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. [43] also evaluated the antibacterial activity of epicatechin 14 and hexadecanoic acid 15 isolated from E. elephantina rhizomes using the microtitre plate dilution technique against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli with ciprofloxacin as positive control and distilled water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative controls. [2], They have a suffrutescent habit typical of their genus. [50] were demonstrated by dichlomethane/methanol extracts against Candida albicans with MIC value of 130 μg/mL. [1] The flowering racemes are typically confined to the lower part of the stem, so that the pods are usually suspended just above ground level, or alternatively rest inconspicuously on the ground. The species exhibited antifungal properties against both microorganisms tested and the authors assessed the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Candida albicans and E. elephantina showed some activity with MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL [21]. E. elephantina is also known as elandsbean, or mupangara (in Shona), intolwane (in Xhosa and Zulu) and mositsane (in Sotho and Tswana) (Phillips, 1917; Jacot Guillarmod, 1971). Symptoms of poisoning were apathy, loss of appetite, and profuse foetid diarrhoea with death occurring within twenty-four hours with the animal in a state of exhaustion. 3100 Arten, die überwiegend in den Tropen und Subtropen vorkommen.Es sind holzige oder krautige Pflanzen mit meist doppelt und paarig gefiederten Blättern mit Nebenblättern und kleinen, regelmäßigen, meist vierzähligen Blüten, deren Staubfäden oft auffällig gefärbt und zu köpfchenförmigen oder ährigen Blütenständen vereint sind. Noteworthy antifungal activities were displayed by dichlomethane/methanol leaf, root, and rhizome extracts against Microsporum canis (0.50 mg/mL), Candida albicans (1.00 mg/mL), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.00 mg/mL). Market application. Naidoo et al. The leaves are dull green, bipinnately compound with 2 … A number of pharmacological activities of E. elephantina have been reported in literature corroborating some of the ethnomedicinal uses listed in Table 2. In Mozambique, root decoction of E. elephantina is taken orally as a pain killer [25] and for sexually transmitted infections [45]. Mpofu et al. Search results for: plant powders. [41] evaluated the antifungal activity of 70% ethanol and n-butanol rhizome extracts of E. elephantina using the TLC bioautography technique with chloramphenicol and miconazole as positive and negative controls, respectively. Based on toxicity evaluations done so far [54, 62, 76], it can be inferred that E. elephantina has some potential toxicity at certain dose levels and should be taken with caution when used as herbal medicine. The literature search was performed from March 2016 to January 2017 using electronic search engines such as Google and Google Scholar and publishing sites such as Elsevier, Science Direct, BioMed Central (BMC), and PubMed. The specimens were deposited at the Larry Leach Herbarium (UNIN) for authentication. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. Some of the pharmacological activities of E. elephantina listed in literature include anthelmintic [58–60], antibacterial [21, 28, 41, 43, 50, 61], antifungal [21, 41, 50, 61], anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive [62], antiplasmodial [63], antioxidant [54], and antibabesial and antirickettsial [64, 65] activities. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions showed high motility inhibition at concentrations of 2.50 mg/mL and above after 6-hour exposure, while the hexane fraction showed motility inhibition at concentrations of 5 mg/mL and above. The young shoots of E. elephantina are eaten by livestock and its seeds have a sweetish taste followed by a burning sensation and are often roasted in southern Africa as a coffee substitute [16]. Therefore, the two compounds epicatechin 14 and hexadecanoic acid 15 showed synergistically enhanced activity especially against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. These authors found that nonflavonoid compounds such as ethyl gallate 4 and gallic acid 5 were more active than flavonoids such as catechin 3 and epicatechin 14. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) [56] isolated kaempferol 2, epicatechin 14, glucuronic acid 42, arabinose 43, epigallocatechin gallate 44, quercetin 45, and epicatechin gallate 46. Abstract: The primary objective of this feasibility study is to conduct a techno-financial assessment for installation of biomass based power plant in Faisalabad division. (leaves) as remedy for sores. piriei, and Senecio serratuloides DC. Elephantorrhiza elephantina inflorescence is an axillary raceme, usually confined to the lower part of the stem usually solitary or clustered. B.-E. van Wyk, B. van Oudtshoorn, and N. Gericke, A. Maroyi, L. J. G. van der Maesen, and L. Gloriosa superba, “(Colchicaceae): Ethnobotany and economic importance,” in, S. Mukanganyama, A. N. Ntumy, F. Maher, M. Muzila, and K. Andrae-Marobela K, “Screening for anti-infective properties of selected medicinal plants from Botswana,”, J. C. Moreki, K. Tshireletso, and I. C. Okoli, “Potential use of ethnoveterinary medicine for retained placenta in cattle in Mogonono, Botswana,”, J. C. Moreki, “Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana,”, L. S. Kose, A. Moteetee, and S. van Vuuren, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho,”, A. Ribeiro, M. M. Romeiras, J. Tavares, and M. T. Faria, “Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge,”, D. Luseba and D. van der Merwe, “Ethnoveterinary medicine practices among Tsonga speaking people of South Africa,”, M. C. Mathabe, R. V. Nikovola, N. Lall, and N. Z. Nyazema, “Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, J. R. Appidi, D. S. Grierson, and A. J. Afolayan, “Ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape, South Africa,”, S. S. Semenya, A. Maroyi, M. J. Potgieter, and L. J. C. Erasmus, “Herbal medicines used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, S. A. Rankoana, “Sustainable use and management of indigenous plant resources: a case of Mantheding community in Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, M. Sanhokwe, J. Mupangwa, P. J. Masika, V. Maphosa, and V. Muchenje, “Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats,”, O. O. G. Amusan, “Some ethnoremedies used for HIV/AIDS and related diseases in Swaziland,”. [54] evaluated antioxidant properties of E. elephantina using DPPH radical scavenging method with the yen and duh percentage inhibition values ranging from 33 to 72% for both methanol and aqueous extracts. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the root extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) der Fabales mit ca. Acacia elephantina Burch. var. Dosage form. The synergistic interactions noted for Pentanisia prunelloides and E. elephantina by Mabona et al. The branched root system often forms extensive colonies of visible plants. The aqueous root extracts of Pentanisia prunelloides combined (1 : 1) with E. elephantina displayed synergistic interactions with sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values ranging from 0.31 to 0.38 mg/mL against Candida albicans. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is an important plant resource in southern Africa, where it provides food and medicine for the indigenous people and the bark of its tuberous rhizome is a popular source of tanning and dyeing materials [6]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents while Senecio longiflorus contained the lowest concentration of both phytochemicals. Nciki et al. Considerable pharmacological potential of E. elephantina has been documented through detection, isolation and purification of its natural products via advances in spectrometric techniques such as attenuated total reflection (ATR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, liquid chromatography electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for structural elucidation of new and complex compounds (Table 3). Mood Plants . Mathabe et al. [58] demonstrated that inhibition of egg hatching and larval development increased significantly with increasing concentration of E. elephantina root extract. The antibacterial potency of this compound isolated from E. elephantina is noteworthy as the species is administered as a remedy by traditional healers in Botswana [40, 41], Mozambique [45], South Africa [15, 28, 29, 32, 38, 44, 46], and Swaziland [34]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) The bark and young branchlets are dark reddish brown. There was complete recovery within one week of treatment. Elephantorrhiza elephantina has been recorded in southern Africa, that is, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, Lesotho, and South Africa. Trichilia emetica Vahl belongs to the Meliaceae family. In this study, E. elephantina caused reduction of Trichuris eggs on days 3 and 6 at 250 mg/kg dose. Skeels Fabaceae Faidherbia albida (Del.) [58] evaluated in vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous extracts of E. elephantina roots on the eggs and larvae of the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus using Valbazen® (11.36% albendazole) at 10 mg/kg and 0.5 mL/kg distilled water as positive and negative controls, respectively. as remedy for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. They occur widely and in several bioregions of southern Africa. ssp. Free shipping BOTH ways on shoes, clothing, and more! Mabona et al. piriei (Hutch.) Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, S. O. Bandeira, F. Gaspar, and F. P. Pagula, “African ethnobotany and healthcare: emphasis on Mozambique,”, S. S. Semenya and M. J. Potgieter, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat erectile dysfunction in the Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, S. S. Semenya, M. J. Potgieter, and L. J. C. Erasmus, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by Bapedi healers to treat diabetes mellitus in the Limpopo Province, South Africa,”, S. Nciki, S. Vuuren, A. van Eyk, and H. de Wet, “Plants used to treat skin diseases in northern Maputaland, South Africa: antimicrobial activity and in vitro permeability studies,”, H. de Wet, S. Nciki, and S. F. van Vuuren, “Medicinal plants used for the treatment of various skin disorders by a rural community in northern Maputaland, South Africa,”, D. van der Merwe, G. E. Swan, and C. J. Botha, “Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa,”, A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “Traditional veterinary medicine in the Alice district of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, S. J. Mpofu, T. A. M. Msagati, and R. W. M. Krause, “Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude extracts from rhizomes of, H. Z. Msimanga, J. Fenstermacher, A. Levitz, I. Najimudeen, C. Phillips, and E. M. Wysocki, “Identification of compounds in hexane extracts of, S. J. Mpofu, T. A. M. Msagati, and R. W. M. Krause, “Flavonoids from the rhizomes of, V. Maphosa, P. J. Masika, E. S. Bizimenyera, and J. N. Eloff, “, V. Maphosa and P. J. Masika, “Anthelmintic screening of fractions of, U. Mabona, A. Viljoen, E. Shikanga, A. Marston, and S. van Vuuren, “Antimicrobial activity of southern African medicinal plants with dermatological relevance: from an ethnopharmacological screening approach, to combination studies and the isolation of a bioactive compound,”, V. Maphosa, P. J. Masika, and B. Moyo, “Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of, C. Clarkson, V. J. Maharaj, N. R. Crouch et al., “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa,”, V. Naidoo, E. Zweygarth, J. N. Eloff, and G. E. Swan, “Identification of anti-babesial activity for four ethnoveterinary plants in vitro,”, V. Naidoo, E. Zweygarth, and G. E. Swan, “Determination and quantification of the in vitro activity of, C. Cueva, S. Mingo, I. Muñoz-González et al., “Antibacterial activity of wine phenolic compounds and oenological extracts against potential respiratory pathogens,”, F. A. Hashem and M. M. Saleh, “Antimicrobial components of some cruciferae plants (, J. Yang, X. Hou, P. S. Mir, and T. A. McAllister, “Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 activity of free fatty acids under varying pH,”, M. Abhilash, “In silico analysis of cranberry proanthocyanidin epicatechin (4beta-8, 2beta-0-7) as an inhibitor for modelled afimbrial adhesin virulence protein of uropathogenic, R. Krause, E. Schwab, D. Bachhiesl et al., “Role of, A. Jouret-Mourin and K. Geboes, “Infectious colitis,”, N. P. Mishchenko, S. A. Fedoreev, V. M. Bryukhanov et al., “Chemical composition and pharmacological activity of anthraquinones from, J. D. Phillipson, C. W. Wright, G. C. Kirby, and D. C. Warhurst, “Tropical plants as sources of antiprotozoal agents,” in, A. R. Ndhlala, C. Mupure, K. Chitindingu et al., “Antioxidant potentials and degrees of polymerization of six wild fruits,”, T. Kalaivani, C. Rajasekaran, and L. Mathew, “Free radical scavenging, cytotoxic, and hemolytic activities of an active antioxidant compound ethyl gallate from leaves of Acacia Nilotica(L.) wild. Alternatively, precursors of the active components may be present in E. elephantina extracts but have to be modified, usually in vivo, before activity is exhibited [63]. Dosage form. [2], E. burkei has similar aerial parts, but its seeds are consistently smaller than those of E. Therefore, there is need for further research on different compounds isolated from E. elephantina; examples include fatty acids and esters. Prosopis elephantorrhiza Spreng. Skeels (Fabaceae) were investigated using wistar rats. Both extracts showed activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus at loadings lower than 15 μg. Water, ethanol or glycerine based extracts for use in liquid formulations. var. [62], the root extract of E. elephantina reduced oedema and pain even better than the control, indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of prostaglandins (PG) synthesis, showing that the plant species has strong anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The leaves consist of 2–4 pairs of pinnae in lower leaves and 7–17 pairs in upper ones, where the axis is up to 10 cm long. Skeels (UNIN 12297) and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Elephantorrhiza elephantina is commonly referred to as “elandsboontjie” in Afrikaans in South Africa and “eland’s bean” and “eland’s wattle” in English in Namibia and South Africa because elands feed on the species foliage and pods [19]. Mainly water soluble, spray dried extracts using ‘soft conditions’ to preserve the integrity of the product. Elephantorrhiza elephantinais used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. The anti-inflammatory activity displayed by root extract of E. elephantina could be due to anthraquinone 38, as previous research by Mishchenko et al. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. and Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. Epicatechin 14 has also been implicated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella flexneri at minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values ranging from 12.50 to 100 mg/mL [70, 71]. [50] evaluated antifungal activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) root extract of E. elephantina using the microtitre plate dilution technique against dermatologically relevant pathogens such as Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with amphotericin B as positive control. Antibacterial activities were displayed by dichlomethane/methanol leaf, root and rhizome extracts against Propionibacterium acnes (MIC values ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 mg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (0.50 mg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermis (0.38 to 1.00 mg/mL) as well as aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol root and rhizome extracts against Brevibacillus agri with MIC value of 0.50 mg/mL. Clarkson et al. Elephantorrhiza; Elephantorrhiza. ex Ker Gawl., Pentanisia prunelloides, deionized water, and potassium sorbate as preservative used as remedy for constipation, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, stomach ailments, and vomiting [43]. Skeels. Elephantorrhiza elephantina. These results demonstrate that E. elephantina leaf extracts may be inhibitory against the Ehrlichia parasite by a similar mechanism to each other, which was unrelated to the mechanism of action of the tetracyclines [65]. [61] evaluated antibacterial activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) leaf, root, and rhizome extracts of E. elephantina using the micro-titre plate dilution technique against dermatologically relevant pathogens such as Brevibacillus agri, Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with ciprofloxacin as positive control and acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative controls. Mpofu et al. The authors recorded no mortalities but changes in body weight and haematological and serum biochemical parameters between the control and treated animals were observed. [50] assessed antifungal activities of root extracts only while Mabona et al. Thirty six goats (18 [2][3] Mature specimens of E. burkei especially, produce their flowering racemes on the branched stems, so that the pods appear in conspicuous positions some distance above ground. Antioxidant properties displayed by E. elephantina could be due to the compound ethyl gallate 4. ); baswortel, elands-boontjie, leerbossie, looiersboontjie, and olifantswortel (Afr. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) These reports are from all the countries where E. elephantina is indigenous. Willd.) Euphorbiaceae Hippobromus pauciflorus (L. F.) Radlk. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) The present review summarizes the ethnomedicinal uses and recent findings on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of different extracts and compounds of E. elephantina. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. Similarly, Nciki et al. Capsule, Tablet, Leave-on Serum/Shampoo . Terminalia sericea, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Tiliacora funifera and Hypoxis hemerocallidea were the most cited plants. Mabona et al. The various populations show considerable variation in terms of the number of pinnae pairs and the number, size and shape of the leaflets. Aaku et al. Skeels is a member of a small and purely African genus represented by nine species on the continent [1]. Similarly, E. elephantina acetone rhizome extract demonstrated activity at 100 μg/mL. Other literature sources included papers published in international journals, reports from international, regional, and national organizations, conference papers, books, theses, websites, and other grey literature. Hello Thokoza! Skeels (UNIN 12297) and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) According to Maphosa et al. Four species in this genus, namely, E. burkei Benth., E. elephantina, E. goetzei (Harms) Harms, and E. suffruticosa Schinz, are highly regarded as medicinal plants in southern Africa [3–5]. [76] evaluated the acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity of E. elephantina root extracts by oral route in male and female Wistar rats. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is usually widespread, often gregarious and forming huge patches in … [51] also revealed that E. elephantina root decoction is taken orally in combination with Cladostemon kirkii (root), Drimia delagoensis (bulb), Ficus sur Forssk. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) [66] who assessed the influence of pure phenolic compounds such as catechin 3, ethyl gallate 4, gallic acid 5, and epicatechin 14 on the inhibition of the growth of potential respiratory pathogens. In Namibia, the pods of E. elephantina are eaten by both people and animals [26]. Indica (Benth.) These results support the traditional use of E. elephantina in treating bacterial infections such as diarrhoea and sexually transmitted infections. They occur widely and in several bioregions of southern Africa. Kuntze ex Thell (UNIN 12298) were collected in April 2015 at University of Limpopo, South Africa. @article{Tyasi2015EffectivenessOE, title={Effectiveness of elephantorhiza elephantina as traditional plant used as the alternative for controlling coccidia infections in goats. Is still common in Maputo markets the young shoots of E. elephantina ; examples include fatty acids and.... Were more extractable antioxidants using methanol compared to water as the eland 's wattle elephant... '', `` Confidence level '', `` elephantorrhiza elephantina inflorescence is an axillary raceme, usually confined to compound! & Gilg-Ben., Peltophorum africanum Sond., and Pharmacology of an important medicinal plant species in Africa. 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