The main part of the Appian Way was started and finished in 312 BC. The Romans renamed the town from "Maleventum" ("site of bad events") to Beneventum ("site of good events") as a result. ], [The commander of the second army was called Publius Varinius. CREDITS. Outnumbered, Spartacus' army was defeated at a place called Apulia. Travellers could cross the Adriatic Sea through the Otranto Strait towards Albania either by landing at present day Durrës through the Via Egnatia or near the ancient town of Apollonia and continue towards present day Rrogozhina in central Albania.[16]. The character of Spartacus was played by Kirk Douglas in the 1960 film Spartacus. The Neapolitans appealed to Rome, which sent an army and expelled the Samnites from Neapolis. After Crassus defeated Spartacus the senator was given a triumph on the Appian Way — the Roman victory parade. It was supposed to be a lesson and a warning against a possible outbreak of another uprising 2. After this, people flocked in still greater numbers to join Spartacus: his army now numbered 70,000 and he began to manufacture weapons and gather stores. Spartacus was a shepherd who had been captured by the Romans and was sent to be a gladiator. “The Appian Way – the Queen of Roads” – Statius (45 – 96 AD) All roads lead to Rome, but the Appian Way is a road like no other. All rights reserved. The Appian Way divided at this point after Trajan built a new branch down the coast by modern Bari. In 73 BC, a slave revolt (known as the Third Servile War) under the ex-gladiator of Capua, Spartacus, began against the Romans. The Appian Way or Via Appia Antica in Rome is one of the most famous ancient roads. Even though the Allies expanded into all the Pomptine region, they gained no ground. [citation needed] In 162 BC, Marcus Cornelius Cathegus had a canal constructed along the road to relieve the traffic and provide an alternative when the road was being repaired. [1.119] Spartacus then tried to force his way out and reach the Samnite country, but Crassus killed almost 6,000 of his opponents at the beginning of the day and nearly as many more at evening, at the cost of three dead and seven wounded from the Roman army; so effective had their punishment been in altering their will to win. They were responsible for changing Rome from a primarily Etruscan to a primarily Italic state. He was very famous for implementing different ideas and construction into Rome. [The first army was commanded by Gaius Claudius Glaber, and the second one by Publius Varinius. This uprising against the Roman Republic, A further piece of evidence for Lugli's proposed path is the presence of a number of archaeological remains in that region, among them the ancient settlement of Jesce. Between Capua and Rome lay the Pontine Marshes (Pomptinae paludes), a swamp infested with malaria. Today’s ruins post-date the arena from that time. This page was created in 2002; last modified on 15 July 2020. [1.120] As a result of this appointment Crassus pressed on urgently with every means of attacking Spartacus, to stop Pompey stealing his glory, while Spartacus, thinking to forestall Pompey, invited Crassus to negotiate. The Appian Way is the road leading from Capua to Rome. The road is named after Appius Claudius Caecus, the Roman censor who began and completed the first section as a military road to the south in 312 BC[4] during the Samnite Wars. The heel of Italy lay open to the Romans. The Appian Way, or Via Appia Antica in Rome, is one of the most famous ancient roads. When analysing aerophotogrammetric shots of the area, Lugli noticed a path (Italian: tratturo) named la Tarantina, whose direction was still largely influenced by the centuriation; this, according to Lugli, was the path of the Appian Way. The Appian Way or Via Appia Antica is ancient road that was built in 312 B.C. Whatever the truth, he established himself in the eyes of his men as more to be feared than a defeat at the hands of the enemy, and forthwith won a victory over 10,000 of Spartacus' men who were encamped separately somewhere. The first answer was the colonia, a "cultivation" of settlers from Rome, who would maintain a permanent base of operations. The battle was costly for both sides, prompting Pyrrhus to remark "One more such victory and I am lost." Appian Way, the Queen of Roads Building of the Appian Way. 2015. Both authors lived in the second century CE, but used older accounts, such as the Histories of Sallust and Livy's History of Rome from the Foundation. The surface was said to have been so smooth that you could not distinguish the joints. The itinerary was Aricia (Ariccia), Tres Tabernae, Forum Appii, Tarracina, Fundi (Fondi), Formiae (Formia), Minturnae (Minturno), Suessa, Casilinum and Capua, but some of these were colonies added after the Samnite Wars. The Appian Way is the most famous Roman road and was so well constructed that it was nicknamed the “Regina Viarum” or “Queen of the roads”.In fact, the ancient Romans were true masters in the construction of roads and masonry in general, which is the reason that still today we can admire so many monuments and structures from that period. Spartacus, who was waiting for some cavalry that were on their way to him, no longer went into battle with his full force, but conducted many separate harassing operations against his besiegers; he made sudden and repeated sorties against them, set fire to bundles of wood which he had thrown into the ditches, and made their work difficult. The Roman Republic was the government of Italy, for the time being. Originally, it was built between Rome and Capua, where … The road began in the Forum Romanum, passed through the Servian Wall at the porta Capena, went through a cutting in the clivus Martis, and left the city. Roman Reigns Roman Crucifixion Description Of Jesus Gods Of The Arena Appian Way 10 Interesting Facts Greek Warrior Roman Republic Spartacus [6] The road was cambered in the middle (for water runoff) and had ditches on either side of the road which were protected by retaining walls. Spartacus, however, changed his mind about marching on Rome because he was not yet a match for the defenders and his troops did not all have soldier's arms and equipment (no town had joined their cause, and they were all slaves, deserters and human flotsam). According to Greek historian Appian of Alexandria, who lived mainly in the second century A.D., Spartacus had once been a Roman soldier but was taken prisoner and sold to a gladiator ring in Capua, near the city of Naples.. Almost six thousand captive survivors of the rebel army were crucified on the Appian Way, from Rome to Capua. ", Dubbini, Rachele. These punishments would have been brought swiftly once his escape plan was discovered. Romans had an affinity for the people of Campania, who, like themselves, traced their backgrounds to the Etruscans. Appian combines these names. In 280 BC the Romans suffered a defeat at the hands of Pyrrhus at the Battle of Heraclea on the coast west of Tarentum. The road concedes nothing to the Alban hills, but goes straight through them over cuts and fills. Flavia, who has escaped the clutches of Rome, vows that Spartacus’ memory will live forever. [12][13], By studying the distances given in the Antonine Itinerary, Lugli also assigned the Appian Way stations Blera and Sublupatia (which also occurs on the Tabula Peutingeriana) respectively to the areas Murgia Catena and Taverna (between masseria (estate farmhouse) S. Filippo and masseria S. Pietro). was there, he despaired of everything and, at the head of a still large force, joined battle with Crassus. The new road is the Via Appia Nuova ("New Appian Way") as opposed to the old section, now known as Via Appia Antica. by Appius Claudius Caecus. In it’s entirety it spanned 350 miles (563kms). To this day the Via Appia contains the longest stretch of straight road in Europe,[20] totaling 62 km (39 mi). The road achieved its purpose. For other uses, see. It was extensively restored for Rome's Millennium and Great Jubilee celebrations. Hemmed in by Crassus’s eight legions, Spartacus’s army divided. One of the most known events that took place along the Appian Way involved the gladiator Spartacus. In May 1944, the Allies broke out of Anzio and took Rome. The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic. Appian suggests that his body was never recovered. Pyrrhus withdrew to Greece, where he died in a street fight in Argos in 272 BC. Tingay, G.I.F., and J. Badcock. In 73 BC, a slave revolt (known as the Third Servile War) under the ex-gladiator of Capua, Spartacus, began against the Romans. The Appian Way was celebrated by Horace and Statius, who called it longarum regina viarum, or “queen of long-distance roads.” As the main highway to the seaports of southeastern Italy, and thus to Greece and the eastern Mediterranean, the Appian Way was so important that during the empire it was administered by a curator of praetorian rank. The Samnites reacted with military force. His forces struck blow after blow against Rome and wreaked havoc on the countryside for two years. 2016. 2014. Started in 312 BC and completed just under 50 years later, the Appian Way, or ‘Queen of Roads’ as it was known, was the world’s first major highway. Ancient Times and the defeat of Spartacus. The via Appia is believed to have been the first Roman road to feature the use of lime cement. Appius Claudius died in 273, but in extending the road a number of times, no one has tried to displace his name upon it. In 71 BC, 6,000 slaves were crucified along the 200-kilometer (120 mi) Via Appia from Rome to Capua. Discover (and save!) It was from here that Spartacus broke free and began a revolt that shook Italy. However, the Romans straightened it somewhat with cuttings, which form cliffs today. The Appian Way (or Via Appia Antica) is one of the first and most famous roads in Rome's history. The historian Procopius said that the stones fit together so securely and closely that they appeared to have grown together rather than to have been fitted together. Impressively, his forces jumped from a mere 74 escapees to nearly 60,000 men (with some estimates as high as 125,000). The Appian Way stretched from the Roman Forum to modern day Brindisi. They then took weapons from a cart going to another town. The message was clear: This was how Rome dealt with threats to their interests. Spartacus, who was eager to go through the Apennines to the Alpine regions, and then to Celtic lands from the Alps, was intercepted and prevented from escaping by the other consul, while his colleague conducted the pursuit. Marcus Licinius Crassus (/ ˈ k r æ s ə s /; c. 115 – 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.He is often called "the richest man in Rome". Supplied by that same road, the Romans successfully defended the region against Pyrrhus, crushing his army in a two-day fight at the Battle of Beneventum in 275 BC. In the aftermath they retreated in confusion, while Spartacus, first sacrificing 300 Roman prisoners to Crixus, made for Rome with 120,000 foot soldiers after burning the useless equipment and putting all the prisoners to death and slaughtering the draught animals to free himself of all encumbrances; and although a large number of deserters approached him he refused to accept any of them. The first commander sent against him was Varinius Glaber,note[The first army was commanded by Gaius Claudius Glaber, and the second one by Publius Varinius. These Were The Romans. For the 1960 Summer Olympics, it served as part of the men's marathon course that was won by Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia.[18][19]. ", Magli, Giulio, Eugenio Realini, Mirko Reguzzoni, and Daniele Sampietro. Plutarch, Appian, and Florus are all of the opinion that Spartacus died during the battle. Along or close to the part of the road closest to Rome, there are three catacombs of Roman and early Christian origin and one of Jewish origin. Pompey's armies captured and killed several thousand rebels that escaped from the battle and Crassus captured several thousand more. Appian of Alexandria (c.95-c.165): one of the most underestimated of all Greek historians, author of a Roman History. "A New Republican Temple on the Via Appia, at the Borders of Rome's Urban Space. Since it was forbidden to bury the dead inside the … Rather than pursue them, Pyrrhus went straight for Rome along the via Appia and then the Via Latina. The ex-slave army was defeated at Siler River by Marcus Licinius Crassus. Upon each cross was a crucified slave. From there the road swerved north to Capua, where, for the time being, it ended. A man of inner perspicacity, in the years of success he was said to have lost his outer vision and thus acquired the name caecus, "blind". A tortuous coastal road wound between Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber and Neapolis. ", Peterson, John. In 312 BC, Appius Claudius Caecus became censor at Rome. was a gladiator from Thrace, most famous as a leader in a major slave revolt. Appius was a Roman statesman, legal expert, and an author of early Roman history. The Romans pushed the via Appia to the port of Brundisium in 264 BC. Here, we find the story by Appian (Civil Wars, 1.116-120). The dates are somewhat uncertain and there is considerable variation in the sources, but during the Third Samnite War the Romans seem to have extended the road to Venusia, where they placed a colony of 20,000 men. Dense populations of sovereign Samnites remained in the mountains north of Capua, which is just north of the Greek city of Neapolis. Appius Claudius planned to drain the marsh, taking up earlier attempts, but he failed. Oct 11, 2013 - This Pin was discovered by Penny Douglas. Then he equipped himself and his companions with staves and daggers seized from travelers and took refuge on Mount Vesuvius, where he allowed many runaway domestic slaves and some free farm hands to join him. Hoping to break a stalemate at Monte Cassino, the Allies landed on the coast of Italy at Nettuno, ancient Antium, which was midway between Ostia and Terracina. 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When the Romans finally suppressed the revolt of enslaved people led by Spartacus, 6000 crucifixes were raised along the Appian Way all the way to Capua from Rome. ed. The Appian Way: From Its Foundation to the Middle Ages. Spartacus' body was not found. Withdrawing from Apulia for a Sicilian interlude, he returned to Apulia in 275 BC and started for Campania up the Roman road. They hired the mercenary, King Pyrrhus of Epirus, in neighboring Greece to fight the Romans on their behalf. They crucified all 6,000 along a road called the Appian Way that went from Rome to Capua where the rebellion first began. There are the remains of several Roman bridges along the road, including the Ponte di Tre Ponti, Ponte di Vigna Capoccio, Viadotta di Valle Ariccia, Ponte Alto and Ponte Antico. Their crucifixion along the Appian Way was ordered, but the removal of their bodies after death was not, resulting in a very effective warning for future revolts. History Crucifixions along the Appian Way. The Italic speakers in Latium had long ago been subdued and incorporated into the Roman state. Tarentum fell to the Romans that same year, who proceeded to consolidate their rule over all of Italy.[9]. Slavery accounted for roughly every third person in Italy. After winning a brilliant victory, he pursued Spartacus as he fled towards the sea with the intention of sailing across to Sicily, overtook him, and walled him in with ditches, earthworks, and palisades. Appian Way. The causeway and its bridges subsequently needed constant repair. For this stretch of the road, the builders used the via Latina. The Samnites were the leading people of the conspiracy. Unfortunately, Pompey returned in time to defeat 5,000 of Spartacus’ followers and so stole most of the glory for himself. In the First Samnite War (343–341 BC) the Romans found they could not support or resupply troops in the field against the Samnites across the marsh. by Appius Claudius Caecus. By far the best known project was the road, which ran across the Pontine Marshes to the coast northwest of Naples, where it turned north to Capua. He killed two thirds of them and marched confidently against Spartacus himself. It was built in 312 B.C. ", Kleijn, M. de, R. de Hond, and O. Martinez-Rubi. It was the city’s gateway to the East that connected Rome with Capua and served as a military and economic artery. Ivana Della Portella, Giuseppina Pisani Sartorio, Francesca Ventre. More recent improvements to the GRA have rectified this through the construction of a tunnel under the Appia, so that it is now possible to follow the Appia on foot for about 16 km (10 mi) from its beginning near the Baths of Caracalla. They found that the place was undefended. The Romans built a high-quality road, with layers of cemented stone over a layer of small stones, cambered, drainage ditches on either side, low retaining walls on sunken portions, and dirt pathways for sidewalks. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the road fell out of use; Pope Pius VI ordered its restoration. instead of legionary forces they had anyone they could quickly conscript on the way, because the Romans did not yet class the affair as a war, but as a kind of raid akin to piracy, and they were defeated when they attacked him. Today, it is one of the best sites with a … Spartacus himself was wounded by a spear-thrust in the thigh, but went down on one knee, held his shield in front of him, and fought off his attackers until he and a great number of his followers were encircled and fell. Spartacus and eighty other slaves escaped from the gladiator school. The Via Latina followed its ancient and scarcely more accessible path along the foothills of Monti Laziali and Monti Lepini, which are visible towering over the former marsh. Rome dealt the northerners a crushing blow at the Battle of Sentinum in Umbria in 295. They are sentenced to death by crucifixion along the Appian Way. On it, any number of fresh troops could be sped to the theatre of operations, and supplies could be moved en masse to Roman bases without hindrance by either enemy or terrain. The movie won four Academy Awards. The translation was made by John Carter. All content copyright © 1995–2020 Livius.org. The battle lasted for four months, one side being supplied by sea, the other by land through Rome. The few roads outside the early city were Etruscan and went mainly to Etruria. A few survive from later times, including a first milestone near the porta Appia. With them, he overpowered their guards and escaped. They intended to move along the line of the via Appia to take Rome, outflanking Monte Cassino, but they did not do so quickly enough. Wintering in Campania, he withdrew to Apulia in 279 BC, where, pursued by the Romans, he won a second costly victory at the Battle of Asculum. The rest of his army was already in disorder and was cut down in huge numbers; consequently their losses were not easy to estimate (though the Romans lost about 1,000 men), and Spartacus' body was never found. In fact, another Lucullus fought against Spartacus.] The road at the time was a via glarea, a gravel road. See The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History, p. 66, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Past Catches Up With the Queen of Roads". The first 5 kilometers (3 mi) are still heavily used by cars, buses and coaches but from then on traffic is very light and the ruins can be explored on foot in relative safety. Legions were brought home from abroad and Spartacus was pinned between armies. The original road had no milestones, as they were not yet in use. The Appian Way where 6000 slaves were crucified in 71 BC. The emperor Trajan built the Via Traiana, an extension of the Via Appia from Beneventum, reaching Brundisium via Canusium and Barium rather than via Tarentum. Historian Mark Cartwright comments on this:Rome's economy relied chiefly on agriculture and war: farming sustained the populace while military campaigns generated necessary funds for various other needs. The Romans were well acquainted with the region. In fact, another Lucullus fought against Spartacus. The construction of Rome's ring road, the Grande Raccordo Anulare or GRA, in 1951 caused the Appian Way to be cut in two. The road was the main factor that allowed them to concentrate their forces with sufficient rapidity and to keep them adequately supplied, whereafter they became a formidable opponent. Because Pompey performed the mopping-up operations, he, and not Crassus, got credit for suppressing the rebellion. The distance was 212 kilometers (132 mi). With the gladiators Oenomaus and Crixus as his subordinates he plundered the nearby areas, and because he divided the spoils in equal shares his numbers quickly swelled. The Second Samnite War (327–304 BC) erupted when Rome attempted to place a colony at Cales in 334 and again at Fregellae in 328 on the other side of the marshes. Spartacus was responsible for one of history's most daring rebellions, the Third Servile War. (Even so, the fields were infested with malarial mosquitos until the advent of DDT in the 1950s.). "A 3D Spatial Data Infrastructure for Mapping the Via Appia. Slavery accounted for roughly every third person in Italy. Lucullus was the Roman general fighting in the east against Mithradates. An aqueduct (the Aqua Appia) secured the water supply of the city of Rome. He and his army ignited a slave revolt that threatened the powerful Roman Empire to its very core. In 73 B.C. When Crassus spurned the offer, Spartacus decided to make a desperate attempt, and with the cavalry which had by now arrived forced a way through the encircling fortifications with his whole army and retired towards Brundisium, with Crassus in pursuit. ", This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 18:10. It connected Rome to Brindisi, in southeast Italy. Spartacus was a man of strong character and intelligence. The slave revolt of Spartacus ended poorly for Spartacus' men when after their defeat, 6000 of them were crucified along the 120-mile-long Via Appia from Rome to Capua in 71 BC. The Germans occupied Mounts Laziali and Lepini along the track of the old Via Latina, from which they rained down shells on Anzio. A stone causeway of about 31 kilometers (19 mi) led across stagnant and foul-smelling pools blocked from the sea by sand dunes. The Samnites fought on alone. The gradients are steep. But when he discovered that Lucullus, who was on his way back from his victory over Mithridates,note[An error. The itinerary from Beneventum was now Venusia, Silvium, Tarentum, Uria and Brundisium. The Roman section still exists and is lined with monuments of all periods, although the cement has eroded out of the joints, leaving a very rough surface. ], [An error. The marsh remained, despite many efforts to drain it, until engineers working for Benito Mussolini finally succeeded. There are two important sources about this revolt: the story is told in the Life of Crassus by Plutarch of Chaeronea, and in the Civil Wars by Appian of Alexandria. Home » Sources » Content » Appian » Appian on Spartacus, About Pictures Sources Countries Languages Categories Tags Thanks FAQ Donate Contact Articles Stubs. However, the toponym Murgia Catena defined too large an area, so that it didn't allow a clear localization of the Appian Way station. [7] Here also ended the Via Latina.[8]. 2003. Making the best of it, the Roman army turned on Greek Rhegium and effected a massacre of Pyrrhian partisans there. The German forces escaped to the north of Florence. by Appius Claudius Caecus. It is no surprise that, after his term as censor, Appius Claudius became consul twice, subsequently held other offices, and was a respected consultant to the state even during his later years. The materials were volcanic rock. The Appian Way (or in Italian, via Appia Antica) was Europe’s first super highway and remains one of the best attractions in Rome. The Romans judged that the slaves had forfeited their right to live. He knew that if he continued on the via Appia he could be trapped in the marsh. By 290 BC, the sovereignty of the Samnites had ended. Their bodies were left to hang on the crosses for several months as a warning to other slaves who might consider the possibility of rebelling against their Roman masters. The Church of Domine Quo Vadis is in the second mile of the road. There are two important sources about this revolt: the story is told in the Life of Crassus by Plutarch of Chaeronea, and in the Civil Wars by Appian of Alexandria. They formed themselves into four groups and kept up their resistance until there were only 6,000 survivors, who were taken prisoner and crucified all the way along the road from Rome to Capua. Pompey’s army intercepted and killed many slaves who were escaping northward, and 6,000 prisoners were crucified by Crassus along the Appian Way. The Appian Way – the most famous road in Rome. The Samnites, now a major power after defeating the Greeks of Tarentum, occupied Neapolis to try to ensure its loyalty. The Appian Way, or Via Appia Antica in Rome, is one of the most famous ancient roads. [1.118] The war had now lasted three years and was causing the Romans great concern, although at the beginning it had been laughed-at and regarded as trivial because it was against gladiators. Rome was no stranger to slave revolts, bu… The Appian Way's path across today's regions Lazio and Campania has always been well known, while the exact position of the part located in Apulia (the original one, not the extension by Trajan) was unknown, since there were no visible remains of the Appian Way in that region. Spartacus himself actually captured Varinius' horse from under him; so nearly was a Roman general taken prisoner by a gladiator. Spartacus Slave Revolt Leader Born c. 109 BC Around the middle course of Struma River Died 71 BC Battlefield near present territory of Senerchia Nationality Thracian Wars Third Servile War Spartacus (c. 109-71 B.C.) According to some, this was not what happened; instead, when he himself had suffered defeat after engaging the enemy with his whole force he had them all draw lots for the tenth place and put to death up to 4,000 men without being in the least deterred by their numbers. Many parts of the original road beyond Rome's environs have been preserved, and some are now used by cars (for example, in the area of Velletri). Both Crassus and Pompey were rewarded for putting down the revolt by being elected as consuls in 70 BC. [1.117] Crixus, at the head of 3,000 men, was defeated and killed by one of them at Mount Garganus, with the loss of two-thirds of his force. After defeating Spartacus and his rebellion, Marcus Licinius Crassus had his 6,000 prisoners each crucified on the Appian Way, from Capua (where the rebellion began) and Rome.This act, alongside punishing the escaped slaves who had waged war on their masters. He was of the gens Claudia, who were patricians descended from the Sabines taken into the early Roman state. When the government at Rome heard of the siege and contemplated the dishonor they would incur from a protracted war with gladiators, they appointed Pompey, who had recently arrived from Hispania, to an additional command in the field, in the belief that the task of dealing with Spartacus was now substantial and difficult. The Via Appia between Colle Pardo and Terracina of a stretch along the Appian Way in had. A place called Apulia 10 Interesting Facts Greek Warrior Roman Republic Spartacus Appian.! Rather than pursue them, and the second mile of the remainder survive as well famous a! Wars were instigated by the Samnites when Rome attempted to form an alliance, a first milestone near Porta... In 264 BC neighbors of Rome 's history famous roads in Rome from Apulia for a Sicilian,... So many tens of thousands of men had no milestones, as they were defeated first and... R. de Hond, and not Crassus, got credit for suppressing the rebellion to... 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